Empyreum Cœlum

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

ShutTheFuckUp

Hi... I'm Martha Coakley...

"If I were to tell the press that millions of Americans would be blown up by an Iranian nutcase, or that your Congress has stolen the entire contents of your savings with health care "reform" or bailouts, nobody panics, because it's all part of the plan...

But, if I tell the press a few homosexuals are upset over their little wee wees in California, why, everyone just loses their minds!"

And I thought my jokes were bad...

Oh, and the purple SEIU suit, it's not cheap, you ought to know, you paid for it...

HOW ABOUT A MAGIC TRICK???

If Scott Brown wins this election, little Obama here won't be able to pimp his grandma for a nickel...

A guy like me... Look, I know why the bar associations have little group therapy sessions in secret ... The Batgirl (Sarah Palin)...

And that McCain on the television, the Batgirl has no juridiction anymore, she'll make him squeal... I know the squealers when I see them...

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Eurasian Secret Services Daily Review
Home page
15.12.2008
Eurasian Secret Services Daily Review
AIA
REVIEW TOPICS:
More spies and traitors may appear in Russia after adoption of amendments on espionage and high treason
German intelligence was also paying to Russian spy from Estonia
Truth about activity of Russian spy will not emerge in foreseeable future, Estonian security services superviser believes
Security Police of Estonia suspected civil engineering company official of bribery
Lithuanian President summons security chiefs to discuss challenges of economic and financial crisis
CIA declassifies reports written by Polish spy who helped bring down Communism
Police considers two versions of reasons of attack on Ukraine’s Security Service Colonel
Security Service of Ukraine adviced parliament members to read Ukrainian newspapers more thoroughly
Security Service of Ukraine seized drugs worth UAH 250 million in 2008
President of Moldova appointed new deputy directors of security service

More spies and traitors may appear in Russia after adoption of amendments on espionage and high treason
Much more spies and traitors of the native land may appear in Russia; the State Duma has been considering the bill which offers expanding of concepts of high treason and espionage, Radio Ekho Moskvy reports. According to news agency RIA Novosti, it is marked in an explanatory note that the bill has been prepared on the basis of analysis of activity of the Federal Security Service of Russia on revealing, suppression and investigation of crimes, responsibility for which is stipulated by specified articles of the criminal code.
The authors of the bill suggest considering the high treason not only hostile activity to the detriment of external security of the country, but also an act directed against constitutional order, the sovereignty, territorial and state integrity. Lawyer Anna Stavitskaja said in an interview to daily Kommersant that all the listed attributes of high treason were themselves very amorphous concepts which were not registered precisely in the law and consequently they could be treated as one liked.
Meanwhile the concept of espionage has also been expanded. Now under this clause these are acts that cause damage to the country’s security and not only to external security but also it is the transfer of classified information to international organizations.
Human rights activists are afraid of return of Stalin-era when everyone who had dared to criticize the authorities could became a traitor of the native land and a spy, Ekho Moskvy marks. Radio notes that the government explains necessity of amendments with care of law enforcement bodies. In an explanatory note it is said that it is difficult to prove the fault of defendants under espionage and high treason clauses because of narrow formulations.
   
Photo by Postimees: Simm's house and vehicle  
Simm's house and vehicle  

German intelligence was also paying to Russian spy from Estonia
The foreign intelligence service Germany BND (Bundesnachrichtendienst) for several years used the former adviser of Ministry of Defence of Estonia, Herman Simm, as an agent, German weekly magazine Der Spiegel reveals. Simm was supplying the BND with data on activity of the Russian intelligence in the Baltics, and Germans generously paid for it, writes Der Spiegel. «It is not yet clear whether Simm was giving false data on Russian instructions, or simply wished to receive double compensation».
According to Der Spiegel, Simm’s meetings with agents of the BND were taking place basically in large Western European cities and cooperation with him was stopped shortly before Estonia joined the European Union in 2004.
Der Spiegel writes about suspicion of Germans that Simm could have transferred data of confidential system of enciphering to the Russians. „Since 2004, the NATO uses Elcrodat system developed in Germany. Telephone conversations and a turn of documents between headquarters of NATO in Bruxelles and its members are ciphered using it", notes the magazine.

Truth about activity of Russian spy will not emerge in foreseeable future, Estonian security services supervisor believes
The chairman of the parliamentary special commission on supervision of security services, Jaanus Rahumagi, believes that in the nearest 50 years public would hardly learn the truth about activity of the Russian spy Herman Simm, Estonian TV reports.
"I am confident that within the nearest 50 years wide public will not learn the truth. I also consider that in the court only that part of Simm’s working will be considered which he himself has admitted”, Rahumagi told in an interview to Aktual Kamera program of the Estonian Public Television.
He also added that he did not have powers to make comments on Simm’s espionage case related to high treason. Rahumagi only said that all what was Simm reporting to Russia on security details has already changed. "All the information which was known to Simm has been changed. All the systems have been changed, too,” he added.
The Estonian TV program mentioned that evidently Simm was also transferring false information to the West, according to orders of the Russian secret services.

Security Police of Estonia suspected civil engineering company official of bribery
The member of board of civil engineering firm Merko Ehitus, Tonu Korts, told an Estonian Television program details of his visit to the Security Police of Estonia (KaPo) in connection with the scandal about alleged bribes in the Tallinn mayoralty.
«As the law enforcement bodies do not wish to publicise the content of their suspicion and in press there are various speculations, I have to tell about suspicions myself to avoid new rumours», announced Korts. According to Korts, the version of the Security Police is that he as a board member of Merko Ehitus company, have allegedly presented the adviser of vice-mayor of Tallinn, Ivo Parbus, a book in which a EEK 25,000 gift certificate of travel company Estravel was enclosed.
According to the Security Police, this gift became a way of promotion of many large building projects in the capital city of Estonia, added Korts. No other suspicions has been shown, according to Korts. He expressed his hope that the investigation would help him to find out the truth.

Lithuanian President summons security chiefs to discuss challenges of economic and financial crisis
The President of Lithuania Valdas Adamkus summoned a meeting of the new country leaders after the composition of the new government to discuss eventual actions on case of critical situation aggravated by economic and financial crisis, daily Respublika reports.
"Economic crisis is threatening national security," is the headline of the online paper Delfi reporting on the event. "In the conditions of economic recession, instability threatening national security of the state can arise in Lithuania,” Delfi cites the speaker of parliament Arunas Valinskas who stressed that „it is better to speak about those problems beforehand instead of talking about them only when they occur”. According to Delfi, President Valdas Adamkus, parliamentary chairman Arunas Valinskas, Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius, Chairman of the parliamentary defense and national security committee Arvidas Anusauskas, the head of State Security Department (VSD) Povylas Malakauskas and other officials for three hours discussed problems which the state may expect in the event that the country will be overflowed with a wave of bankruptcies and citizens will start to massively lose jobs". "At the meeting were discussed problems which could emerge with an aggravation of the complex financial situation", president’s press-attache Rita Grumadaite told the press. President Adamkus wished smooth coordination and trust between the VSD and the President, the parliament and the government. It was separately emphasized that the mission of the VSD, new tasks put forward before the security service and its responsibility before the population of Lithuania was also discussed.
Mass media were not informed on more concrete eventual dangers. Prime Minister Kubilius only noted that danger could arise only in the event that the economic situation would worsen, if bankruptcies of large enterprises will begin in the country, and "when economic problems become problems of concrete people", Delfi reports.

CIA declassifies reports written by Polish spy who helped bring
   
  Kuklinski. WBJ
  Ryszard Kuklinski 
down Communism

The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has declassified over a thousand pages of reports handed to the Americans by the late Colonel Ryszard Kuklinski, an officer serving in the General Staff of the People's Army of Poland (1976-1981), and dealing with Communist regime preparations to enforce martial law in Poland in December 1981, Polish Radio reports. The CIA has now disclosed around 1,000 out of the approximately 40.000 pages of most classified documents concerning Poland, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, involving Moscow’s plans to use nuclear weapons that Kuklinski conveyed to the US.
The documents were made public during a special session in CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, devoted to Kuklinski. It was accompanied by a screening of War Games, a film by Dariusz Jablonski about Kuklinski which was attended by CIA chief Michael Hayden and former presidential national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski. Hayden called the agent a hero and patriot whose activities had helped save many lives.
Speaking to the radio CIA historian Nicholas Dujmovic said the revealed documents do not give a clear answer to the question of General Wojciech Jaruzelski's decision to enforce martial law in Poland. “Unfortunately the release is not complete and may be disappointing to some people and I know Polish people are looking to restore their own history. It is disappointing to me as a historian but it's a good start. So stay tuned, as we say, there will be more such releases.”
According to Kuklinski, an invasion of Poland by Warsaw Pact nations was scheduled for December 1980, during the height of the Solidarity trade unions pressure for reform, though the action was subsequently called off. In February 1981, after Jaruzelski had been elevated to prime minister, plans to speed up the introduction martial law in Poland were presented to officials of the KGB who were in Warsaw.
In June, information handed by Kuklinski to the CIA reported that Moscow had ordered Soviet families living in Poland to leave by 15 June. He also reported Warsaw Pact troops movements in Poland. 
Other documents show Moscow's reluctance to initiate armed intervention in Poland, but at the same time Kuklinski stressed, what he saw, as its eventual inevitability. The information sheds light on the circumstances of declaring martial law, a subject central to the ongoing trial of Jaruzelski and other generals who are charged with crimes against the nation. According to Kuklinski, it was General Kiszczak who was keenest on a quick clampdown on the Solidarity trade union, using the advantage of surprise to smash the opposition. Another aspect of the documents that the CIA has released is that despite knowing about the plans for the introduction of martial law, the American government did not let Solidarity know about them. For nearly ten years, Kuklinski was the CIA's top spy in the Soviet bloc, NPR program emphasized yesterday.
Born in 1930 in Warsaw, Kuklinski joined the Polish military in 1947. He began cooperating with the CIA after the bloody suppression of workers' strikes in Gdask, Gdynia and Szczecin in December 1970. In 1981, Kuklinski and his family left Poland with the help of the American intelligence community. Kuklinski was sentenced to death in absentia in 1984, a sentence that was later commuted to 25 years in prison and finally overturned in 1997. He died in 2004 in Florida. In 1982, then-CIA director William Casey wrote to President Reagan that no one had done more than Kuklinski to undermine communism over the previous 40 years, Warsaw Business Journal notes.

Police considers two versions of reasons of attack on Ukraine’s Security Service Colonel
The police have been considering two versions of the reasons of an attack on a Colonel of the Security Service of Ukraine in Lvov, news agency RBC-Ukraine reports, referring to an informed police source. The investigation is carried out by Frankovsk regional department of police of Lvov.
According to one of the versions, the attack could be explained with a robbery attempt, the other one considers that the attack might be connected with the criminal case on bribery by the Chairman of Lvov Court of Appeal Igor Zvarych.
Unknown persons attacked a Colonel of the Security Service of Ukraine last week in the city of Lvov. The State Office of General Prosecutor of Ukraine brought a criminal case against the Chairman of the Lvov Administrative Court of Appeal on materials of the Security Service of Ukraine for reception of a bribe in especially large amount.

Security Service of Ukraine adviced parliament members to more thoroughly read Ukrainian newspapers
The Acting head of the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) Valentin Nalyvaychenko studied in the
   
V.Nalyvaychenko NEWSru  
Valentin Nalyvaychenko  
Institute of Intelligence named after Yuri Andropov, not in the Higher School of the USSR State Security Committee, according to the head of press-service SBU Marina Ostapenko who was making comments on inquiry of members of the Supreme Rada (parliament) of Ukraine with the request to check up the corresponding information of a Russian newspaper, daily Ukrainskaya pravda reports.
Thus Ostapenko advised the parliament members to read « Ukrainian newspapers instead of Moscow ones». In particular, she reminded that back in July in an interview to the Fakty. Sobytiya i Lyudi, Nalyvaychenko already told where he had studied, „and he did not try to hide these facts of the biography”. In the interview Nalyvaychenko told about his studies in the Institute of Intelligence named after Andropov where he received his second higher education. He said he was the last listener from Ukraine in the Institute and he had a choice, whether to remain in Moscow or to come back home.
15 members of the Supreme Rada sent a corresponding inquiry addressed to the editor-in-chief of the daily Moskovskaya pravda and specified that in the issue of newspaper dated November 14, 2008, there was information that Valentin Nalyvaychenko ostensibly is a graduate of the Higher School of the KGB of the USSR. The parliament members asked the Moscow paper to present documentary acknowledgment of the fact of Nalyvaychenko’s studies and at absence of such acknowledgment to publish a refutation in the newspaper.
The reply of the newspaper stressed that the Moskovskaya pravda was not a keeper of the KGB archive and recommended the Ukrainian parliament members to ask Nalyvaychenko himself about his education.

Security Service of Ukraine seized drugs worth UAH 250 million in 2008

Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) in 2008 seized drugs worth UAH 250 million (USD 1=UAH 7.47), according to the press service of the SBU, National Radio and Television Company of Ukraine reports.
This year, the security agency confiscated 216.8 kilograms of heroin, 53.2 kilograms of cocaine, 12.8 kilograms of methadone, 22.1 kilograms of psychotropic substances and over 2.6 kilograms of precursors. The overall value of confiscated drugs set at black market prices is over UAH 250 million. According to specialists, this amount of drugs is enough to produce around five million drug doses.
According to SBU General Valery Kravchenko, the SBU has information that a million of US dollars was allocated to promote methadone programs in Ukraine, online site Rising Voices writes. It is understandable that pharmaceutical companies which produce methadone should sell it somewhere, but this is a drug and will not stop the addiction, General marked.

President of Moldova appointed new deputy directors of security service
The President of Moldova Vladimir Voronin has signed the decree on appointment of Mikhail Bodyan and Alexander Lunkar to the posts of the deputy directors of the Information and Security Service of the Republic of Moldova, information agency Lenta PMR reports.
Before the appointment to the posts of the deputy directors of the Information and Security Service, Alexander Lunkar headed the Soroksk management of financial control and audit, and Mikhail Bodyan held a post of the head of the Information and Security Service department, Lenta PMR expands.

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Saturday, September 6, 2008

Monday, August 11, 2008

Georgia

Federal Security Service (FSB)
Federal'naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti
FSB History

The Federal Security Service (FSB - Federal'naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti, previously known as Federal Counterintelligence Service - FSK) is the most powerful of the successors to the KGB. In the years since the fall of the Soviet Union, the FSB slowly took on the responsibilities of a number of agencies. Most recently, it absorbed FAPSI, the Russian equivalent of the United States' National Security Agency.

The FSB's power is rooted in the influence of President Vladimir Putin, a former director, and a vast network of former officers that has permeated all sectors of Russian government and society. It is estimated that, among Russia’s 1,000 leading political figures, 78% have worked with the FSB or its predecessors. With this sort of clout at its disposal, FSB carries out intelligence, counterintelligence, counterterrorism, economic crime investigation, electronic intelligence, border control and “social monitoring.”

After the fall of the Soviet Union, internal security functions previously performed by the Second, Third and Fifth Chief Directorates and the Seventh Directorate were initially assigned to a new Ministry of Security. But that agency was disbanded December 1993 and replaced by the Federal Counterintelligence Service [Federal'naya Sluzhba Kontr-razvedky - FSK]. This 75,000-person agency was subsequently redesignated the Federal Security Service (FSB).

In 1903, the first Russian military counterintelligence organ, which operated mainly in St. Petersburg, was established to counteract military espionage being carried out by foreign intelligence services against Russia. The beginning of World War I prompted the Russian Government to adopt a more thorough approach to the organization of the counterintelligence service in the army. By agreement with Nicholas II, the government adopted a decision on the formation of counterintelligence departments under the military districts, followed by counterintelligence organs in theaters of hostilities.

Immediately after the October 1917 Revolution one step for the counterintelligence protection of Red Army units was the formation (in July 1918) of the Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counterrevolution on the Eastern Front. At the same time the function of combating espionage was made the responsibility of the military control organs that were set up in the Red Army and Navy. They were subordinate to the command, and were organizationally part of the operational staffs.

Colonel General Igor Mezhakov, deputy director of the FSB, was dismissed in September 1995. Rumors indicated that he was widely disliked, having been a member of the commission that investigated the role of the KGB leadership in August 1991 coup]. Lieutenant General Anatoliy Semenov, chief of the Antiterrorism Directorate, was dismissed from his position the same day as Mezhakov. Since spring of 1996 Semenov has been head of the president's Main Directorate of Cossack Troops. Lieutenant General Anatoliy Krayushkin, head of the Directorate of Records and Archives, left his job in September 1995. It was rumored that he had fallen under suspicion in connection with a German intelligence agent. Lieutenant General Vladimir Tsekhanov, chief of the Economic Counterintelligence Directorate, was removed from his position in early summer 1996. He was one of the initiators of the scandal involving the joint-stock company Lenzoloto which resulted in criminal indictments.

When senior Yeltsin aides Oleg Soskovets, Mikhail Barsukov, and Aleksandr Korzhakov were abruptly dismissed on 20 June 1996, Mikhail Barsukov had served as FSB head for less than a year. Barsukov took over the leadership of the FSB from Sergei Stepashin in July 1995 in the wake of the Budennovsk hostage crisis. Yeltsin named a deputy director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), Colonel General Nikolai Kovalev, as its new acting chief. Kovalev's intelligence service activity began in 1974 with his entrance in the KGB, where he joined the Fifth Directorate, which dealt with ideological questions and the questions related to dissidents. He served for two years in Afghanistan and later working in the Moscow and Moscow Oblast branches of the FSB before being made deputy director with responsibility for the Investigations Directorate, Directorate for Economic Counterintelligence, and Operational Reconnaissance Directorate. After his nomination to the FSB, Kovalev told the news media that he saw the emphasis of his activities in the economic security of Russia and in the fight against corruption. In addition, he promised to focus on measures to respond to increasing activities of foreign intelligence services in Russia.

On 25 July 1998 Yel'tsin nominated Vladimir Putin as Director of the Federal Security Service. The Russian and foreign media knew very little about the new boss of the FSS and latched on to his past in the KGB and his less than cuddly media image. Putin became a permanent member of the Security Council at the beginning of October 1998, and at the end of March 1999 the Secretary of the Council. His position as the head as the FSS gave him also a seat on the Interdepartmental State Defence Orders Commission. Putin kept his FSB job until 09 August 1999 when Boris Yel'tsin made him Acting Prime Minister. His FSB position was given to N P Patrushev.

When Vladimir Putin succeeded Yeltsin as President in 2000, the FSB benefited from a massive increase in funding. Although exact figures are unknown, it is alleged that the FSB’s funding increased by as much as 40% in 2006 alone. In the wake of September 11th, and President Bush’s declaration of a global war on terror, the FSB took on more power. The war in Chechnya and an effort to keep Russians safe from terror became the impetus for extraordinary renditions, assassinations of terrorists, and expanded domestic surveillance programs.

In 2003, the Statute on Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and Structure of Federal Security Service Agencies allowed the FSB to absorb a number of other agencies. Most notably, the FSB took over the five month-old Special Communications and Information Service, the successor to FAPSI. FAPSI, the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information was Russsia's equivalent of the American National Security Agency. The FSB then became responsible for electronic surveillance and intelligence-gathering. This expansion was controversial because FAPSI ran the computer system that processes and reports the results of elections.

The 2003 statute further restructured the FSB into the following nine services:

* Counterintelligence Service
* Service for Protection of the Constitutional System and the Fight against Terrorism
* Directorate of Military Counterintelligence
* Economic Security Service
* Analysis, Forecasting, and Strategic Planning Service
* Organizational and Personnel Service
* Border Service
* Control Service
* Science and Technical Service

In 2006, the FSB came under international scrutiny for the deaths of two of its most prominent opponents. Anna Stepanova Politkovskaya, a Russian journalist who covered the Chechen conflict, was shot to death in her apartment on 7 October 2006. Politkovskaya was known for her opposition to Putin’s policies. Politkovskaya’s supporters accused the FSB of involvement because she was preparing to release an article implicating Chechnya’s Prime Minister Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov in human rights abuses.

The suspicious death of Alexander Litvinenko, a former KGB officer, and outspoken opponent of the FSB became the next chapter in the saga. Litvinenko was writing a book about the FSB’s abuses (including high-profile assassinations) during the Putin era and allegedly had been gathering information on the FSB’s involvement Politkovskaya’s death. Litvinenko died of a mysterious case of polonium-210 radiation poisoning on 23 November 2006. He was apparently infected during a meeting with a contact a month earlier.

Although no governments or international bodies have accused the Russia of any hand in these deaths, there is now an unspoken, underlying suspicion accompanying a more overt display of disapproval of Putin’s tightening grip on power. The FSB is considered the foremost symbol of a resurgent and ever more powerful Russian central government. http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/russia/fsb.htm

Wednesday, July 23, 2008

ShutTheFuckUp

Plenty of evidence for WMDs...

1957. Saddam Hussein joins the Ba'ath Party and becomes one of its thugs.

1958, July. Gen. Abdul Karim Kassem takes power in coup, during which King Faysal II and Prime Minister Nuri as-Said are killed. Kassem ends Iraq's membership in the Baghdad Pact in 1959 and turns to the Soviet Union for support.

1959. After taking part in a failed attempt to assassinate the Iraqi President, Abdul Karim Kassem, Saddam escaped, first to Syria and then to Egypt. In his absence he was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment.

1959. Iraq's nuclear program was established under the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. Under a nuclear co-operation agreement signed with the Soviet Union in 1959, a nuclear research center, equipped with a research reactor, was built at Tuwaitha, the main Iraqi nuclear research center. The research reactor worked up to 1991. The surge in Iraqi oil revenues in the early 1970s supported an expansion of the research program. This was bolstered in the mid-1970s by the acquisition of two research reactors powered by highly enriched uranium fuel and equipment for fuel fabrication and handling. By the end of 1984 Iraq was self-sufficient in uranium ore. One of the reactors was destroyed in an Israeli air attack in June 1981 shortly before it was to become operational; the other was never completed.

1960, February 18. Full meeting of the National Security Council. Eisenhower is briefed on Soviet and U.S. Bio-weapons research. Eisenhower is briefed on the U.S. focus on non-lethal incapacitation agents that, instead of killing, cause lethargy, irritation, blackout, paralysis, generalized illness and a lack of will to fight--all effects being temporary so as to reduce repercussions in the international community if used. By contrast, it is noted, most Soviet biological agents under development were lethal.

Eisenhower, who was delighted at the possibilities of non-lethal agents on the battlefield, still worried that the enemy might interpret their use as full-scale attack. Eisenhower and the Joint Chiefs decide that if they ever decide to employ these agents, they will need to immediately notify the world of their non-lethal nature.

1960’s. Vietnam. Viet-Cong smear sharpened punji sticks with human excrement to cause infection in soldiers injured by booby-traps.

“For hundreds of years it has been impossible to carry on war without firing hot metal capable of blasting off legs and arms and of leaving men blind or mindless for life.... Ironically enough, it can be argued that the only known hope for a relatively humane warfare in the future lies in the chemical and biological weapons.” - Brigadier General J. H. Rothschild, "Germ and Chemical Warfare," Survival. March 1962. Quote is in reference to the use of non-lethal agents.

1963, February. Kassem is assassinated when the Arab Socialist Renaissance Party (Ba'ath Party) takes power under the leadership of Gen. Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr as prime minister and Col. Abdul Salam Arif as president.

1963, May. Saddam returns to Baghdad following the coup by the Ba'ath Party. He becomes an interrogator in the Fellaheen and Muthaqafeen detention camps. These are camps where communists and fellow-travelers are kept. The coup against the “Communist” Kassem is assisted by the CIA, which receives several Mig fighter jets, and Soviet tanks for helping the Ba'ath Party.

1963, October. Arif leads a coup ousting the Ba'ath government and bringing the Communists back into control of the government.

1966, April. Arif is killed in a plane crash and is succeeded by his brother, Gen. Abdul Rahman Mohammad Arif.

1967. Saddam Hussein takes over responsibility for Ba'ath Party security. Saddam sets about imposing his will on the Party and establishing himself at the center of party power.

1968, July 17. A group of Ba'athists and military elements overthrow the Arif regime. Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr re-emerges as the President of Iraq and Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). Ba'ath party seeks U.S. help in re-arming Iraqi military but is turned down.

1968. A Czech General defects to the United States and reports that U.S. prisoners of war were used for biological tests by the Russians in North Korea.

1969. Saddam became Vice- Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, Deputy to the President, and Deputy Secretary General of the Regional Command of the Ba'ath.

1969, November 25. Nixon renounces the U.S. Use of Bio-weapons, stating, “The U.S. shall renounce the use of lethal biological agents and weapons, and all other methods of biological warfare. The U.S. will confine its biological research to defensive measures.... [The Human Race] already carries in its hands too many of the seeds of its own destruction.” Nixon becomes the worlds leading advocate for a treaty banning such weapons.

“I have decided that the United States of America will renounce the use of any form of deadly biological weapons that either kill or incapacitate. Our bacteriological programs in the future will be confined to research in biological defense on techniques of immunization and on measures of controlling and preventing the spread of disease. I have ordered the Defense Department to make recommendations about the disposal of the existing stocks of bacteriological weapons.” - President Richard M. Nixon, 1969

1971 - 1973. All remaining biological weapons were destroyed at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, and Fort Detrick.

1971. An outbreak of Plague in Aralsk is attributed to Soviet testing at Vozrozhdeniye Island in Kazakhstan.

1971. Iraq begins chemical warfare research at Rashad to the north east of Baghdad. Research is conducted on a number of chemical agents including Mustard gas, CS (tear gas) and Tabun. Iraq starts biological warfare research in the mid-1970s. After small-scale research, a purpose-built research and development facility was authorized at al-Salman, also known as Salman Pak.

1972. Saddam, knowing that the Soviet Union will re-equip the Iraqi Army, travels to Moscow. Iraq and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of “Friendship and Cooperation.” Another reason Saddam signs the treaty is because it obligated the local communist party, which is very strong, to co-operate with the Ba'ath Party, which is not so strong at that time.

1972. The United States, the Soviet Union, and more than 100 other nations sign the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. The accord prohibits the possession of deadly biological agents except for research into such defensive measures as vaccines, detectors, and protective gear. This is the world’s first treaty to ban an entire class of weapons. The Army establishes the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as successor to its former program at Ft. Detrick.

Unfortunately, the Convention is only a pledge and lacks provisions for inspections or enforcement--while containing numerous loopholes.

1973. Stanford school of medicine researchers Boyer & Cohen use gene splicing to create a viable, penicillin resistant strain of E. coli.

1973. The Soviet Union establishes Biopreparat, which would become the hub of Moscow’s germ warfare effort. At its peak in the 80’s it will employ over 30,000 scientists and technicians at more than 100 facilities across the Soviet Union. Secretly run by the military, it would command annual budgets approaching 1 billion dollars. During its life it would study over 80 different agents and weaponize over a dozen of them, including: Tularemia, various strains of Anthrax, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Botulinum, Bubonic Plague, Smallpox, Glanders, and Marburg (a virus similar to Ebola which cause hemorrhagic fever).

1973 - 1989. Czechoslovakia sells Iraq (81) L-39ZO Albatros Jet trainer aircraft; (750) BMP-1 IFVs; (200) BMP-2 IFVs; (400) T-55 Main battle tanks.

1973, October. Yom Kippur War. Following the Yom Kippur War, the Israelis analyze Soviet-made equipment captured from the Egyptians and Syrians. They discover portable chemical-proof shelters, decontamination equipment for planes and tanks, and that most Soviet vehicles have air-filtration systems on them to remove toxic chemicals.

The indications are that the Soviets are ready for extensive chemical warfare and might actually be planning to initiate chemical warfare in a future war. Soviet division commanders are later thought to already have authority to initiate chemical warfare.

1975. Biological and Toxin Weapons Treaty goes into effect.

1976. The Soviets establish a new germ warfare facility in Siberia known as “Vector”. The largest and most sophisticated facility of its kind ever built, its primary purpose is to research viruses for possible weaponization. A large part of its research has to do with using recombinant DNA techniques to produce ultra-deadly “superbugs” impervious to known defensive measures. Research includes germs designed to seize control of the human metabolism, causing the body to self-destruct, and splicing the gene that makes Diphtheria toxin into Plague bacteria, which devastates animal test subjects.

1976. The Secretary of The Army reverses a decision to abolish the Chemical Corps. He cites the heightened awareness of the Soviet Union’s capability to wage chemical warfare as the primary reason, and the need to train Army personnel how to counter chemical threats.

“Chemical weapons can be tailored to fit the exact requirements of the changing situation. They can effect any necessary type of casualties from incapacitation to death in minutes.” - General Frank Stubbs, U.S. Army Chemical Corps.

1970s & 1980s, Biopreparat, an organization under the Ministry of Defense, expands to at least 6 research laboratories, 5 production facilities and employees up to 55,000 military and civilian scientists and technicians. A 1995 report estimated that the Russian program continues to employ 25,000 to 30,000 people.

1977. Last known outbreak of Smallpox occurs in Somalia.

1977-1990. France sells Iraq (23) Mirage F-1C Fighter aircraft; (85) Mirage F-1 Fighter aircraft (various versions); (18) SA-342K/L Gazelle Light helicopters (assembled in Egypt); (5) Super Etendard FGA aircraft for use with AM-39 anti-ship missiles against Iranian warships and oil tankers in the Persian Gulf; (85) AMX-GCT 155mm Self-propelled guns; (100) AMX-10P IFV’s; (150) ERC-90 Sagaie Armoured cars; (115) M-3 VTT APC’s; (2) Rasit Battlefield radars; (113) Roland Mobile SAM systems; (1) TRS-2100 Tiger Surveillance radar (Fitted in Iraq on an Il-76 transport aircraft designated “Baghdad-1”); (6) TRS-2230/15 Surveillance radars; (280) AM-39 Exocet Anti-ship missiles For Mirage F-1E and Super Etendard aircraft; (36) AM-39 Exocet Anti-ship missile For AS-332 helicopters; (450) ARMAT Anti-radar missiles For Mirage F-1E FGA aircraft; (240) AS-30L ASM’s For Mirage F-1E FGA aircraft; (1,000) HOT Anti-tank missile For SA-342K helicopters and VCR-TH tank destroyers; (534) R-550 Magic-1 AAM’s For Mirage F-1C fighter aircraft; (2,260) Roland-2 SAM’s; (300) Super-530F AAM’s For Mirage F-1C fighter aircraft.

1978-1990. Soviet Union sells Iraq (33) Il-76M/Candid-B Transport/tanker aircraft; (37) Mi-17/Hip-H Helicopters; (12) Mi-24D/Mi-25/Hind-D Combat helicopters; (30) Mi-8TV/Hip-F Helicopter; (61) MiG-21bis/Fishbed-N Fighter aircraft; (50) MiG-23BN/Flogger-H FGA aircraft; (30) MiG-25P/Foxbat-A Fighter aircraft; (8) MiG-25RB/Foxbat-B Reconnaissance; (41) MiG-29/Fulcrum-A Fighter aircraft; (46) Su-22/Fitter-H/J/K FGA aircraft; (25) Su-24MK/Fencer-D Bomber aircraft; (84) Su-25/Frogfoot-A Ground attack aircraft; (180) 2A36 152mm Towed guns; (100) 2S1 122mm Self-propelled guns; (100) 2S3 152mm Self-propelled guns; (10) 2S4 240mm Self-propelled mortars; (560) BM-21 122mm MRL; (576) D-30 122mm Towed guns; (576) M-46 130mm Towed guns; (10) SS-1 Scud/9P117M SSM launchers; (100) BRDM-2 Sagger-equipped tank destroyers; (200) PT-76 Light tanks; (60) SA-13/9K35 Strela-10 self-propelled AA systems; (160) SA-9/9P31 self-propelled AA systems; (2,150) T-62 Main battle tanks; (25) SA-6a/2K12 Kvadrat SAM systems; (80) SA-8b/9K33M Osa-AK Mobile SAM systems; (960) SA-13 Gopher/9M37 SAM’s; (100) SA-14 Gremlin/Strela-3 Portable SAM; (250) SA-16 Gimlet/Igla-1 Portable SAM’s; (840) SA-6a Gainful/3M9 SAM’s; (6,500) SA-7 Grail/Strela-2 Portable SAM’s; (1,290) SA-8b Gecko/9M33M SAM’s; (1,920) SA-9 Gaskin/9M31 SAM’s; (800) SS-1c Scud-B/R-17 SSM’s; (40) SS-1c Scud-B/R-17 SSM’s.

1978. Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov is assassinated using an “umbrella gun” that shoots a Ricin laced BB into his thigh. The attack is carried out by the KGB.

1978-1990. Germany (FRG), sells Iraq (28) BK-117 Helicopters (intended for VIP transport and Search & Rescue); (20) Bo-105C Light helicopters.

1979-1989. Brazil sells Iraq (67) Astros-2 MRL’s; (350) EE-11 Urutu APCs; (280) EE-3 Jararaca Reconnaissance vehicles; (1,026) EE-9 Cascavel Armoured cars; (13) Astros AV-UCF Fire control radars for use with the MRLs.

1979-1989. Switzerland sells Iraq (2) PC-6B Turbo Porter Light transport aircraft; (52) PC-7 Turbo Trainer Trainer aircraft; (20) PC-9 Trainer aircraft.

1979, April. Sverdlosk military industrial complex suffers a major Bio-weapons accident when a lethal cloud of weaponized Anthrax floats over a nearby village. An estimated 1,000 people eventually die. The soviet military seizes control of the area and begins clean-up operations.

The incident is first reported the following October in a Frankfurt based Russian émigré newspaper. Later the next year, eyewitness accounts appear in Bild Zeitung, and intelligence sources confirm the accident, which is denied by the Soviets, who claim the deaths were due to a minor outbreak of anthrax from infected meat. In 1992 Boris Yeltsin admits there was an accident. The later, “official” death toll is 66.

1979, July. Bakr resigns. Saddam Hussein takes over the Presidency of Iraq. Within days, five fellow members of the Revolutionary Command Council are accused of involvement in a coup attempt. They and 17 others are summarily executed.

1979, December. Soviets invade Afghanistan. Before the war, the Afghan population is estimated to have been somewhat more than fifteen million people. Over five million (a third of the country), became refugees, mostly in Pakistan and Iran; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees called this ``migratory genocide.'' Millions more became refugees within the country, swelling the population of Kabul. Another million people are killed, either in fighting, or in massacres by Soviet troops, or by sheer starvation. Land-mines are effectively employed to make much of the countryside uninhabitable; also to make tens of thousands of people cripples. In a display of really macabre ingenuity, the Soviets take to scattering brightly-colored plastic toys, which explode when picked up by children. There is considerable evidence that, at least in some districts, the Soviets engage in deliberate campaigns of extermination, and make use of chemical weapons.

1979. Reports begin to filter out of Laos of possible soviet bio-weapons use. Hmong tribesmen report that helicopters flown by Soviet-backed forces are spraying villages with a mysterious substance that causes horrific burns and lesions on the skin, and internal bleeding.

Refugees call it “yellow rain ” (trichothecene mycotoxins). Later, reports of this same substance and others filter out of Afghanistan. Attacks in Southeast and Central Asia reportedly cause thousands of deaths between 1974 and 1981. Experts are split on the veracity of reports and the type of agent.

1980. Smallpox is considered to have been “eliminated” in the world population.

1980. Denmark sells Iraq (3) Al Zahraa Class Landing ships.

1980-1984. Italy sells Iraq (2) A-109 Hirundo Light helicopters; (6) S-61 Helicopters For VIP transport; 1 Stromboli Class Support ship.

1980’s. Soviet forces in Afghanistan employ chemical weapons against Muhajidin and civilians in areas under their control. Nerve and mico-toxin agents are the prime suspects. Their use is denied.

1980, September. Saddam renounces a border treaty with Iran in 1975. The treaty ceded half of the Shatt al-Arab waterway to Iran.

1980, September 22. The armed forces of Iraq launch an invasion against Iran. The Iraqi army, trained and influenced by Soviet advisers, has organic chemical warfare units and possesses a wide variety of delivery systems. When neither side achieves dominance, the war quickly stalemates. To stop the human-wave attacks by the Iranians, Iraq employs home-produced chemical agents as a defensive measure against the ill-prepared Iranians.

The first reported use of chemical weapons is in November 1980 (probably CS). For the next several years, reports circulate of additional chemical attacks.

“During the war with Iran, I remember telling someone [that] Khomeini isn't the only person who talks to god. Saddam Hussein thinks he talks to god. He has a message--he has to lead Iraq, make it a model for the Arab countries and then attract the rest of the Arab countries and become the sole Arab leader of modern times.” - Said Aburish, Saddam Hussein: The Politics of Revenge.

1980-88. Chemical weapons are used extensively during Iran-Iraq war. Most are used by Iraq. Saddam is also believed to have used them against his own people, primarily Kurdish and Shiia minorities. First use during the war is by Iraq. By 1985 Iraq is producing 1,000 tons of various chemical weapons agents annually.

During the war, Saddam appoints his cousin, Ali Hasan al-Majid, as his deputy in the north. In 1987-88, al-Majid led the "Anfal" campaign of attacks on Kurdish villages. All villages within 20 kilometers of the Iranian border are ruthlessly destroyed, and many are attacked with chemical weapons. Amnesty International estimates that more than 100,000 Kurds were killed or “disappeared” during this period.

During the first half of the war the United States provides Iraq with limited military assistance in the form of satellite imagery of Iranian military dispositions and troop concentrations. Assistance is ended when their use of chemical weapons is confirmed.

1981-1984. Romania sells Iraq (150) T-55 Main battle tanks (transferred via Egypt); (256) T-55 Main battle tanks.

1981-1988. China sells Iraq (4) B-6 Bomber aircraft; (40) F-6 Fighter aircraft; (80) F-7A Fighter aircraft (Assembled in Egypt and transferred via Jordan); (50) Type-83 152mm Towed guns; (1,300) Type-59/T-54 Main battle tanks; (25) Type-653 Armored Recon Vehicles; (1,300) Type-69-II Main battle tanks; (650) YW-531C & YW-701/Type-63 APC; (100) CAS-1 Kraken/C-601 Anti-ship missiles For Tu-16/B-6 bomber aircraft; (1,000) HN-5A Portable SAMs.

1981-1988. UK sells Iraq (29) Chieftain Armoured Recon Vehicles; (10) Cymbaline Mk-1 Arty locating radars.

1981-1989. Egypt sells Iraq (80) EMB-312 Tucano Trainer aircraft; (18) SA-342K/L Gazelle Light helicopters; (300) BM-21 122mm MRLs (multiple rocket launcher); (210) D-30 122mm Towed guns; (96) M-46 130mm Towed guns; (300) Sakr-36 122mm MRLs; (250) T-55 Main battle tanks (Ex-Egyptian Army).

1981-1989. Spain sells Iraq (24) Bo-105C Light helicopters; (2) Al Fao Self-propelled guns.

1981. Israeli jets bomb the French-supplied 40-megawatt Osirak research reactor in Iraq. Experts agree that if this had not been done, Iraq would have had a functioning nuclear weapon by the time of the Gulf War. Iraqi scientists had planned, not to divert the existing French-supplied highly enriched nuclear fuel (enough for one bomb), but rather to blanket the reactor with natural or depleted uranium, which would produce plutonium. That would have made it possible to continue producing, eventually allowing repeated bomb production.

1982. The Soviets build a new germ warfare facility in Stepnogorsk, Kazakhstan to produce their new, more lethal variant of Anthrax. Named the Scientific Experimental and Production Base, it is the most advanced facility of its type ever built, and the only such facility outside of the Russian heartland. In 1991, Kazakhstan gains independence and in 1995 allows U.S. inspectors access to the abandoned facility.

Andy Weber, the chief inspector, calculates that at full capacity the plant could produce 300 tons of Anthrax in a single 220 day production cycle. More than enough to wipe out the entire population of the United States. Stepnogorsk is only one of six such facilities operated by the Soviet Union.

One reason Kazakhstan allows U.S. inspectors to visit, is their anger over the environmental disasters left over from the soviets WMD programs. The Russians used Kazakhstan and neighboring Uzbekistan for open-air tests on advanced chemical, germ and nuclear weapons. These tests have left many in these regions with radiation-related cancers and a host of debilitating diseases.

Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea was used for open air tests of biological and chemical weapons on thousands of test animals. These tests also killed as many as 30,000 Taiga Antelope on the Usturt Plateau in western Uzbekistan which lies downwind of Vozrozhdeniye, not to mentions thousands of other game animals and livestock in the region.

1982. Austria sells Iraq (200) GHN-45 Towed guns. Officially ordered by Jordan, but illegally delivered to Iraq.

1982. Libya sells Iraq (400) EE-9 Cascavel Armoured cars.

1982. Iraq also establishes Muthanna State Establishment, also known as al-Muthanna, and operated under the front name of Iraq's State Establishment for Pesticide Production. It has five research and development sections, each tasked to pursue different programs. In addition, the al-Muthanna site is the main chemical agent production facility, and took the lead in weaponizing chemical and biological agents--including all aspects of weapon development and testing in association with the military.

1982-1990. Poland sells Iraq (15) Mi-2/Hoplite Light helicopters; (750) MT-LB APC’s; (400) T-55 Main battle tanks; (500) T-72M1 Main battle tanks.

1982, October 27. Iraq's first operational Scud Missile brigade, equipped with 9 launchers, fires its missiles at Iran. During the war, Iraq fires between 333 and 360 Scud missiles at Iran, 183 at Teheran alone. Iraq is known to have purchased over 1,000 Scud missiles from the Soviets during the war. The Iranians return the favor by firing their own Scuds at Baghdad.

1983-1985. USA sells Iraq (31) Bell-214ST Helicopters (Officially bought for civilian use, but taken over by Air Force); (30) Hughes-300/TH-55 light helicopters (Officially bought for civilian use, but taken over by Air Force); (30) MD-500MD Defender light scout helicopters; (26) MD-530F light helicopters. This is the much vaunted sale of U.S. arms to Iraq! Only 26 of these aircraft are military versions and those are light, unarmed scouts.

1983, June. Iraq deploys Mustard Gas and uses it against Iran.

1983. An Army study suggests that Anthrax can be turned into a much easier to control bio-weapon through recombinant DNA by making decay in sunlight. The main drawback to Anthrax is its persistence. U.S. suspects that Soviets are experimenting with recombinant DNA techniques to create Superbugs for Bio-war in violation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Treaty.

1983, November. Iran complains to the United Nations that Iraq is using chemical weapons against its troops.

1984. Congress created the Chemical Warfare Review Commission to look at several issues related to the military’s chemical warfare preparedness. This committee visited numerous sites, interviewed experts, reviewed policy, and examined intelligence reports. Among their findings, the commission concluded:

“that in spite of the approximately $4 billion that the Congress has appropriated since 1978 for defense against chemical warfare, that defense, measured either for purposes of deterrence or for war fighting utility, is not adequate and is not likely to become so. Chemical combat as it would exist in the late twentieth century is an arena in which defense must be nearly perfect to be effective at all, detection is so difficult, and surprise offers such temptation—the offense enjoys a decisive advantage if it need not anticipate chemical counterattack. Defense continues to be important to pursue, because it can save some lives and preserve some military capabilities. But for this country to put its faith in defense against chemical weapons as an adequate response to the Soviet chemical threat would be a dangerous illusion.”

1984. Dalles, Oregon. Followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh commit a biological attack against the town to eliminate opposition in the city council against re-zoning for their ranch/compound. The agent used was Salmonella typhimurium. The attack was carried out by spraying a Salmonella solution into the salad bars of 35 restaurants along Interstate 84, where most locals ate. Between 750 to 1,000 people were affected and became violently ill. While no one died during the attack (a small miracle), one newborn infant whose mother was a victim suffered permanent damage due to the disease. This incident resulted in 751 cases of enteritis and 45 hospitalizations. After a year long investigation an amateur “bio-weapons lab” was found on the Rajneesh’s compound when an employee admitted the attack and told investigators where to look. Among the virulent cultures found were Francissella tularensis, Sallmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella dysenteriae. Had these been used, as was planned in a follow up to the first attack, deaths would have been certain. Several cult members are convicted of these crimes in 1986.

1984. South Africa sells Iraq (200) G-5 155mm Towed guns.

1984. Iraq begins producing the nerve agent Tabun and deploys it within the year for use against Iran.

1984. 4000 prisoners are executed at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. 3000 more prisoners are executed at the Mahjar Prison between 1993 and 1998. Women prisoners at Mahjar are routinely raped by their guards.

1984, 1986, 1987. The United Nations dispatches teams of specialists to the area to verify claims of Iraqi use of chemical weapons against Iran. The conclusion from all three trips is the same: Iraq is using chemical weapons against Iranian troops. In addition, the second mission also stressed that the use of chemical weapons by Iraq appeared to be increasing despite the publicity of their use. The reports indicated that Mustard agent and the nerve agent Tabun are the primary agents used, and that they were generally delivered in airplane bombs. The third mission reports the use of artillery shells and chemical rockets, and the use of chemical weapons against civilian personnel. The third mission is the only one allowed to visit Iraq.

The Iran–Iraq War fails to reach a military conclusion despite the use of chemical weapons by both sides. Roughly 5% (20,000) of the Iranian casualties are caused by chemical weapons. Many remain hospitalized to this day.

1984, April. Reagan goes public about suspected Soviet use of chemical and biological weapons in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan. A few days later the Wall Street Journal prints interviews from Soviet émigrés who allege that Moscow is, in fact, conducting a whole range of recombinant DNA experiment--including viruses containing cobra venom genes that would create deadly toxins inside the victims body after infection.

“The United States must maintain a limited retaliatory capability until we achieve an effective ban. We must be able to deter a chemical attack against us or our allies. And without a modern and credible deterrent, the prospects for achieving a comprehensive ban would be nil.” - Ronald Reagan.

1985. Jordan sells Iraq (2) S-76 Spirit Helicopters (Ex-Jordanian Air Force).

1985. The U.S. Congress passed public law 99-145 authorizing production of binary-chemical weapons. Binary weapons, which use otherwise safe chemicals that only become dangerous when combined are considered safe for storage and disposal, and a necessary deterrent against the Soviet Chemical weapons arsenals. Nuclear deterrence is not considered sufficient, especially in light of soviet treaty violations and chemical warfare military doctrine.

1985. Dr Rihab Taha is selected to head the biological weapons research team at al-Muthanna.

“Dr. Spertzel, it’s not a lie when you are ordered to lie.” - Dr Rihab Taha, response to UNSCOM inspectors when asked why she continued to lie in the face of proof, 1995.

1986. Iraq begins producing Sarin nerve agent.

1986. Baghdad University purchased an assortment of germs from the American Type Culture Collection, for “medical” research.

The collection serves as a global lending library for scientists doing research to combat infectious diseases to improve global health. Overseas customers were required to obtain a Commerce Department export license for the most virulent strains. These licenses had always been a formality since these germs were intended for peaceful research only, and the courtesy was extended to all who asked for legitimate reasons. Moscow, too has a vast collection of infectious diseases.

1987. After admitting for the first time that they possess chemical agents, the Soviets announced the halting of chemical weapons production.

1987, December 16. Production of the M687 binary projectile begins at Pine Bluff Arsenal. This was no small feat considering modern environmental and general public concerns. To resolve political concerns, the M20 canisters were filled and stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, while the M21 canisters were produced and filled at Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. The filled M21 canisters and shell bodies were then stored at Tooele Army Depot, Utah.

In time of need, the parts could be combined and would provide the army with a chemical retaliatory capability.

Additional delivery systems are the BLU-80/B (BIGEYE) bomb and XM135 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Binary Chemical Warhead. Both utilize the binary concept. These systems dispersed the persistent nerve agent VX after mixing two non-lethal chemical agents (designated NE and QL).

1988. Gorbachev orders scientists at Sverdlosk to dispose of the tons of Anthrax it has stored at Zima, near Irkutsk. It is presumed that, in light of his policies of glasnost and perestroika, he nervous that Britain or the U.S. may demand to inspect the facility, revealing Soviet breaches of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. The Anthrax is taken to the Vozrozhdeniye island test range in Kazakhstan where it is soaked in bleach and buried.

1988. While working at the Vector facility in Siberia, scientist Nikolai Ustinov accidentally infects himself with the Marburg virus while trying to perfect it as a weapon. Marburg, like Ebola, causes hemorrhagic fever. Ustinov dies, but his colleagues harvest the virus from his body and discover that it has mutated into a more virulent form which they designate “Variant U.”

1988. Al-Hakam, a large biological agent production facility, goes into operation in Iraq. Botulinin toxin and Anthrax are its main is its main production. By 1991 the plant produces about 125,000 gallons of agents. After stating for years that the plant was used to produce animal feed, the Iraqis admitted in 1995 that the plant was a biological warfare production facility. The admission comes only as a result of a high-level defection. The site is supervised by Dr. Taha’s staff at Muthanna State Establishment.

In addition to producing biological warfare agents, they also conducted live-agent tests on animals. The Iraqis also later admitted they had prepared about 200 biological missiles and bombs. Still unaccounted for.

Hans Branscheidt a chemical expert says (in 2003), that Iraq purchased eight mobile chemical laboratories from the Federal Republic of Germany. He says that the construction of an Iraqi research center for missile technology "became almost exclusively the work of German companies." This report is confirmed by the head of Germany's intelligence service, August Hanning.

1988, March 17. The village of Halabja was bombarded by Iraqi warplanes. The raid was over in minutes. A Kurd described the effects of a chemical attack on another village: "My brothers and my wife had blood and vomit running from their noses and their mouths. Their heads were tilted to one side. They were groaning. I couldn't do much, just clean up the blood and vomit from their mouths and try in every way to make them breathe again. I did artificial respiration on them and then I gave them two injections each. I also rubbed creams on my wife and two brothers." (From "Crimes Against Humanity" Iraqi National Congress.)

1988, June. The Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center at Ft. Detrick produces a classified study stating that Iraq is building a “bacteriological arsenal”. Among the agents identified are Anthrax and Botulinin toxin. The report states that they are also producing germs for assassinations and that Hussein Kamal, Saddam’s son-in-law and head of Iraq's Intelligence Agency was personally supervising the program.

The report stated that the Iraqis had purchased many of their starter germs from the American Type Culture Collection. The scientific supply company that maintains the collection, the largest collection of germ strains in the world, is located in Maryland and is the same place the Rajneeshee Cult purchased the germs for their “pharmacy”, which they used in their Bio-attack in Oregon.

The intelligence report goes to the State Department, CIA, and various departments of the military. However, no one thinks to tell the Commerce Department or the American Type Culture not to allow any more purchases by Iraq.

1988, July. Iraq tests new helicopters fitted with aerosol generators for dispersing Anthrax.

1988, August. Iraq finally accepts a United Nations cease-fire plan ending the war with Iran. The only result of the war is a colossal loss of life on both sides.

1988, September. Human Rights Watch reports on Saddam’s attacks on the Kurds. Estimates vary, but according to Human Rights Watch up to 5,000 people were killed in the areas they are able to visit.

Shortly before, there were rumors that Libya had used chemical weapons obtained from Iran during an invasion of Chad. The United States rushed 2,000 gas masks to Chad in response. There were also reports of the Cuban-backed government of Angola using nerve agents against rebel forces.

1988, September 29. Iraq’s Ministry of Trade’s Technical and Scientific Materials Import Division (TSMID), which American intelligence had recently identified as the front for Iraq’s germ warfare program, orders additional germ cultures, one of which was Anthrax strain 11966. In February 1989, further sales to Iraq were banned. The Commerce Department also slammed the door shut on Iran, Libya, and Syria, who were also suspected of trying to develop germ weapons.

This is the supposed “help” we gave to Iraq. We did not give the Iraqis “germ weapons” or the equipment to make them. The equipment used to manufacture germ weapons can be purchased off the shelf in over a dozen countries. The same equipment used to make animal feed, yogurt, fertilizer, powdered milk, and dozen of other legitimate products can be used to manufacture bio-weapons, which is why bio-weapons manufacturing facilities are easy to disguise.

Iraq purchased materials and supplies to turn germs into weapons from around the world, but mostly from Europe. Cattle feed stock growing media from Britain, and machinery from France and Germany. Delivery systems from the Soviet Union and others.

1989. South Africa makes the strategic decision to dismantle its covert nuclear weapons program.

Meanwhile, German Karl Schaab helps Iraq smuggle centrifuges into the country. These centrifuges are used to enrich uranium into fissionable material. After the Gulf War, Usncom inspectors will oversee their destruction, but not before Iraq learns how to make copies of the originals. Centrifuge tubes are made either of steel or aluminum.

1989, February. The last Soviet troops leave Afghanistan, just over nine years after they had arrived.

1989, September. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the USSR Regarding a Bilateral Verification Experiment and Data Exchange Related to Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, otherwise known as the Wyoming MOU, started the talks between the two countries for the elimination of chemical weapons.

1989, October. A top Soviet biologist, Vladimir Pasechnik defects to Britain. He reveals that the Soviet Union’s bio-weapons warfare program is far larger than anyone suspected, employing as many as 30,000 scientists and specialists--figures later confirmed by other defectors. Pasechnik claims the Soviets have developed long-range missiles to deliver germs as well as nukes.

Before defecting, he had been the director of the Institute for Ultra-Pure Biological Preparations in Leningrad, one of many Soviet front organizations. His institute had employed some 400 scientists doing research in modifying cruise-missiles to spread germs. Pasechnik also claims that the Soviets are engaged in the genetic engineering of super bio-weapons, including a "Super" Plague virus.

1990. U.S. intelligence sources detect increased chemical-development activity in Libya. Libya constructs a chemical weapons plant at Rabta that can produce about 100 tons of chemical agents annually. Libya claims that the plant was destroyed by a fire. New disclosures surfaced in 1996 that Libya is constructing a second chemical production plant at Tarhunah. U.S. intelligence sources claimed that this would be the largest underground chemical weapons plant in the world, covering roughly 6 square miles and situated in a hollowed-out mountain. With Scud missiles having a range of 180 to 300 miles, this creates a significant threat to Libya’s neighbors. Libya strongly denies the accusation.

1990, Spring. Iraq purchases 40 top-of-the-line aerosol generators capable, of disseminating 800 gallons of liquid an hour, from Italy. They are compact enough to fit in the back of a pickup truck, small boat, or single-engine aircraft.

1990, June. American intelligence officials identify Iraq’s research center at Al Tuwaitha, near Baghdad as a place suspected of engaging in the genetic engineering of bio-weapons. The assessment is made based on the “buying patterns” of the facility and the fact that Iraq’s top military scientists are working there.

Al-Hakam begins producing Anthrax and by December turns out 2,200 gallons.

1990, June 1. The United States and the Soviet Union sign a bilateral chemical weapons destruction agreement. In support of this agreement, the secretary of defense cancels most of the new chemical retaliatory program, and the army decides to mothball its new binary chemical production facilities in 1990.

1990, August. Iraq starts a crash program to develop a single nuclear weapon within a year. The goal is the rapid development of a small 50 machine gas centrifuge cascade to produce weapons-grade HEU using fuel from the Soviet research reactor, which was already substantially enriched, and unused fuel from the reactor bombed by the Israelis. By the time of the Gulf War, the crash program had made little progress. Iraq's declared aim is to produce a missile warhead with a 20-kiloton yield.

1990, August 2. Iraq invades Kuwait. At this time, Iraq’s bio weapon’s arsenal contains some 8500 liters of Anthrax spores, 19000 liters of Botulinum, 4000 liters of Aphlatoxin, and a quantity of Typhoid. They also possess up to 25 Scud warheads and 160 bombs equipped for BW.

1990, August 6. The Navy sends it’s commanders an intelligence assessment on Iraq’s bio-weapons capability warning that Iraq’s germ weapons may be effective against ships at distances of up to 25 miles. It also stated that Iraq has substantial amounts of Botulinin toxin, Anthrax, Cholera, and Staphylococcus--among other agents. The CIA warns that Saddam has a significant number of artillery shells, missiles, bombs, rockets and high-performance aircraft equipped with sprayers for dispensing these agents. All modified Soviet equipment.

War planners worry about how to deal with these weapons.

1990, November. CIA analysts warn that if Saddam thought his personal position was hopeless, this could convince him to use bio-weapons against a major Saudi oil facility, or against troops, to shock the coalition into a cease-fire.

Air force planners start targeting all know or suspected chemical weapons production and storage facilities. Plans are made to use bombs that will cause these structure to “implode” and then follow-up with incendiary bombs to destroy any escaping agents in an effort to reduce civilian casualties near the targets.

Troops are to be immunized against Anthrax, the most likely of his bio-weapons. There is no effective vaccine for Botulinin toxin.

An analysis by U.S. Naval Intelligence notes that Baghdad purchased microbial media sufficient for the production of 74 billion human lethal doses of Botulinum. This same growth media is also used for the production of animal feed, which the Iraqis would later claim it was purchased for.

Production of Botulinum toxin begins at the Dawrah veterinary vaccine plant near Baghdad. By December is has produced 1,400 gallons.

1990, December. Iraqi pilots test spray tanks fitted to their fighters at the Abu Obeydi air base. Additional tests are conducted in January ‘91.

1991. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, funding for its germ warfare programs dry up, leaving many facilities, and those that run them unemployed and destitute. Those that remain employed are paid irregularly if at all.

1991, January. US/UK inspection teams visit Russia to inspect 3 bio-war facilities as a part of a 3-way exchange of inspectors. The US/UK teams find evidence of an extensive offensive weapons program that involves biological agents, such as Smallpox, Anthrax, Marburg virus, and Plague.

In December, Russian inspection teams visit closed U.S. biological facilities and see that the U.S. has ended its offensive program. However, the lead Russian inspector reports back to Moscow that the U.S. continues to have an offensive program and Moscow publicizes this to the world community--apparently as “payback” for the embarrassment they suffered from US/UK findings. Several member of that team later defect to the U.S. and admit that the reports were a deliberate lie for political reasons.

1991, January 15. Deadline for Iraq’s withdrawal from Kuwait.

1991, January 16. Operation Desert Storm’s air campaign begins. Initial air attacks concentrate on Iraqi chemical production facilities, bunkers, and lines of supply. Iraq launches its first Scud missile against the coalition.

1991, January 21. Coalition bombers strike what Iraq claims is a baby milk factory in Baghdad. The United States insists that Iraq is using it as a biological weapons development site. It appears the facility had briefly functioned as a “baby milk” factory in 1979 and 1980, and then again in the spring and summer of 1990, before the Iraqi regime began to use it as a biological weapons site. The site was defended as a military site at the time of the attack. It is prime example of a dual use facility.

1991, January 28. Saddam Hussein tells Peter Arnett of CNN News that his Scud missiles, which were already hitting Israel and Saudi Arabia, could be armed with chemical, biological, or nuclear munitions. Iraq threatens to use chemical weapons against allied troops if the high levels of bombing against his military continues. He is in turn told that he will be personally targeted if he uses chemical or biological weapons.

During the course of the war, Iraq fires 46 Scuds at Saudi Arabia, 42 at Israel, and 1 at Bahrain. In Israel the missile attacks cause 1-2 deaths and 208 (mostly light) injuries; 4 people die of heart attack and 7 due to incorrect usage of gas masks. In Saudi Arabia a Scud missile hits a U.S. barracks and kills 27 service men and women. Over 100 are injured.

1991, February 23. The ground war against Iraq to liberate Kuwait begins. On 27 February, Allied troops liberate Kuwait City and finish destroying the Iraqi divisions originally in Kuwait. No known chemical and biological attacks were made by the Iraqis, but there are reports of chemical weapons detectors going off. These are thought to be false alarms at the time.

A number of reasons surfaced after war as to why the Iraqis had not initiated large-scale chemical and biological warfare. Three reasons are thought to account for this. The first has to do with the fact that at the beginning of the ground war, prevailing winds shifted such that their use would blow them back onto Iraqi troops. Second, that the speed of the ground war was such that it prevented orders to use them from being carried out. Third, that allied bombing destroyed or prevented most of them from being moved forward to operational areas. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, commander of Allied forces, mentions that Iraq might have feared nuclear retaliation.

The Iraqi army fleeing Kuwait sets fire to over 1,160 Kuwaiti oil wells with serious environmental consequences.

Later reports of “Gulf War Syndrome” indicate the exposure to chemical or biological weapons may, in fact, have occurred. The intense air-pollution on the battle-field is also thought to be a contributor.

After the Persian Gulf War, General Colin Powell testified to congress that the United States was vulnerable to biological warfare. One reason was that the United States had been unable to standardize a good biological agent detector.

1991, February 27. President Bush orders a cease-fire, effective at midnight Kuwaiti time. Bush orders the cease-fire under pressure from coalition members like Saudi Arabia and Syria who threaten to withdraw support if U.S. troops move on Baghdad to remove Saddam. Democrats Remind Bush that the war resolutions only call for kicking him out of Kuwait.

Under the Cease-Fire agreement to follow, Saddam agrees to give up all weapons of mass destruction. Later, he would state that his biggest mistake was not waiting till he had a nuclear weapon to attack Kuwait.

1991, March 1. In the wake of the Gulf War, riots break out in the southern city of Basra, spreading quickly to other cities in Shia-dominated southern Iraq. The regime responds by killing thousands. Many Shia tried to escape to Iran and Saudi Arabia. Shii’s in the south and Kurds in the North rebel against Saddam. Iraqi troops put down the rebellions. Estimates of the numbers of dead go as high as 500,000 over the course of the next year.

1991, March 4. At the Kamisiyah arsenal, northwest of Basra, the U.S. Army 37th Engineer Battalion blew up the Iraqi munitions storage bunkers. According to newspaper accounts, the engineers claimed that their chemical agent detectors went off during the explosions. Later the same year, a United Nations inspection team reportedly found the remains of chemical rockets and shells in one of the bunkers and found traces of sarin and mustard agent. In 1996, the department of defense acknowledged that one of the bunkers probably contained sarin- and mustard agent–filled munitions, and that as many as 20,000 U.S. soldiers may have been exposed to chemical agents as a result.

1991, April. UNSCR 687, creates the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) and requires Iraq to accept, unconditionally, "the destruction, removal or rendering harmless, under international supervision" of its chemical and biological weapons, ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150km, and their associated programs, stocks, components, research and facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is charged with destruction of Iraq's nuclear weapons program. UNSCOM and the IAEA must report that their mission has been achieved before the Security Council can end sanctions. They have not yet done so.

1991, April 18. Iraq delivers its first official report to the U.N. on its unconventional weapons. They acknowledge limited production of chemical weapons but do not mention nuclear or biological weapons. It is later learned the top Iraqi official have been ordered by Tariq Aziz to hide all evidence of these weapons, as well their stocks of VX (an advanced nerve agent), from inspectors.

1991, August 2. UNSCOM’s first biological inspections team arrives in Iraq. They are given a one-page statement that acknowledges that they performed biological research for defensive military purposes.

Between 1991 and 1998 UNSCOM succeeded in identifying and destroying very large quantities of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles as well as associated production facilities. The IAEA also destroyed the infrastructure for Iraq's nuclear weapons program and removed key nuclear materials. This was achieved despite a continuous and sophisticated program of harassment, obstruction, deception and denial. Because of this UNSCOM concluded by 1998 that it was unable to fulfill its mandate. The inspectors were withdrawn in December 1998.

From Iraqi declarations to the UN after the Gulf War we know that by 1991 Iraq had produced a variety of delivery means for chemical and biological agents including over 16,000 free-fall bombs and over 110,000 artillery rockets and shells. Iraq also admitted to the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) that it had 50 chemical and 25 biological warheads available for its ballistic missiles.

UNSCOM discovers samples of indigenously-produced highly enriched uranium, forcing Iraq's acknowledgment of uranium enrichment programs and attempts to preserve key components of its prohibited nuclear weapons program.

1991, September. CIA identifies 8 sites suspected of germ production. On the list is Al Hakem, which the Iraqis claim is just a warehouse, but is surrounded by security fences spaced 2 miles apart. When inspectors arrive the Iraqis change their story and say that it is a factory for making animal feed. At the time of their visit it is in fact making animal feed, but suspicions are aroused because of medical quality of the equipment and the fact that the plant is staffed by highly trained micro-biologists. It would later be proved that this facility had been one of Iraq's primary bio-weapons production lines, making tons of Botulinin and Anthrax. It is a perfect example of a “dual-use” facility.

1991. A Russian scientist claims that Russia had developed a new, highly toxic, binary nerve agent called "Novichok". According to the scientist, the nerve agent is undetectable by U.S. chemical detectors and may have been used in the Persian Gulf War by Iraq to produce some of the Gulf War Syndrome symptoms.

1991, mid-year. The U.N. Security Council demanded that Iraq return all prisoners from Kuwait and other lands. Iraq's regime agreed. It broke its promise. Last year the Secretary General's high-level coordinator for this issue reported that Kuwaiti, Saudi, Indian, Syrian, Lebanese, Iranian, Egyptian, Bahraini, and Omani nationals remain unaccounted for--more than 600 people. One American pilot is among them.

1991, December. Iran purchases two tactical nukes, which have been smuggled out of the Soviet Union. The claim is made by an exiled Iranian scientists who bolsters his claim with documents he smuggled out of Iran. Those same documents indicate that the Iranians cannot use them because they do not know how to remove the safety covers without disabling the devices. The devices, if the Iranians have them, are considered to be non-functional, but a possible source of material for another device or a “dirty” bomb.

1992. Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov, former first deputy director of Biopreparat (the civilian arm of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program) defects to the United States (where he changes his name to Ken Alibek). He confirms many of the West's suspicions of Russia's offensive biological program, including the fact that Russia has used its Smallpox stock to make weapons and has used recombinant DNA techniques to produce “super bugs”. One such research project included efforts to combine Ebola with Smallpox. Many of the hybrids are designed to defeat western vaccines and anti-biotics.

Other revelations by Alibek include the fact that Moscow has secretly produced tons of Anthrax, Smallpox, and Plague germs meant for use against the United States. He also discloses that Biopreparat operated over 40 bio-war research and production sites spread across Russia and Kazakhstan, which employed as many as 30,000 scientists and technicians. He also points out that Sverdlosk was the Soviets busiest Anthrax production facility, producing it in “industrial quantities.”

While working as a researcher at the Stepnogorsk facility, he developed Anthrax strain No. 836. This strain was strain was three times as deadly in both dry and liquid forms than the strains responsible for the Sverdlosk accident, and required fewer spores for infection.

“The Soviet Union has two main directorates responsible for developing and manufacturing biological weapons. Biological weapons were stored at the Minister of Defense facilities. For example, [the] Kirov facility was responsible for storing Plague, about 20 tons of Plague. The Zagorsk facility (now it's Sergiev Posad) was responsible for storing smallpox biological weapons, about 20 tons, as well. And the Ekaterinburg facility (at that time Sverdlovsk) was responsible for continuous manufacturing [of] anthrax biological weapons. The amount of this weapon produced was hundreds of tons.” - Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov, First Deputy Director of Biopreparat from 1988 to 1992. Interview with Frontline, 1998.
“According to the Soviet Union's philosophy... smallpox, plague and anthrax were considered strategic operational biological weapons. In future wars, if Marburg was finished, Marburg was to be used as a strategic weapon. But what was complete and ready for application were the smallpox biological weapons, plague biological weapons and anthrax biological weapons.” - Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov, First Deputy Director of Biopreparat from 1988 to 1992. Interview with Frontline, 1998.

1992. Sergei Popov defects to Britain. Popov worked at both Vector in Siberia and Oblensk. His work included designer germs that cause the symptoms of Lupus and Rheumatoid arthritis, in which the body’s auto-immune system causes the body to self-destruct. His team had inserted into viruses genes that make protein fragments of Myelin (which makes up the sheaths around nerves). The result is a way to rapidly produce Multiple-Sclerosis, a degenerative disease of the nervous system, in victims that become infected.

By splicing myelin into Legionella (Legionnaires’ disease), they created a bug that caused brain-damage, paralysis and death. The recombinant Legionella was very infectious and lethal with only a few a few cells. At Oblensk they had managed to splice into the Plague bacteria the gene that makes Diphtheria toxin, creating a highly virulent and deadly strain.

1992, August. United Nations establishes a no-fly zone along the 32nd parallel after Iraq launches renewed attacks against Shiite Muslims. The United States and its allies begin patrolling the no-fly zone, operations which continue today. In December, the U.S. planes intercept and shoot down an Iraqi MIG-25 that violates the no-fly zone. Since the establishment of the no-fly zones, Iraq has fired on coalition aircraft on a regular basis. Numerous anti-aircraft sites have been destroyed by coalition aircraft.

1993. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is established. It prohibits the research and production of offensive chemical agents, similar to the BWC.

1993. The Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS) directs and pursues an attempt to assassinate, through the use of a powerful car bomb, former U.S. President George Bush and the Emir of Kuwait. Kuwaiti authorities thwart the terrorist plot and arrest 16 suspects, led by two Iraqi nationals.

1993, January. The United States accuses Saddam Hussein of moving missiles into southern Iraq. Iraq refuses to remove the missiles. Allied planes and ships attack the missile sites and a nuclear facility near Baghdad. In June, following the discovery of a plot to assassinate former President George Bush, U.S. ships fire 24 cruise missiles at intelligence headquarters in Baghdad.

1993, February 27. A bomb explodes at the World Trade Towers in New York City. Some analysts suspect the bomb was laced with cyanide that failed to ignite. Six people are killed and hundreds injured. Islamic terrorists are responsible.

1994. Saddam Hussein moves troops to the Kuwaiti border. The forces withdraw after the United States deploys a carrier group, warplanes and 54,000 troops to the Persian Gulf region.

Saddam's son Udayy creates a “militia” which uses swords to execute victims outside their own homes. He has personally executed dissidents. He also maintains a private torture chamber, known as the “Red Room”, in a building on the banks of the Tigris disguised as an electricity installation.

1995. A U.S. citizen is sentenced under the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, to 33 months in prison for possession of 0.7 grams of Ricin.

1995. After four years of deception, Iraq finally admits it had a crash nuclear weapons program prior to the Gulf War. Were it not for that war, the regime in Iraq would likely have possessed a nuclear weapon no later than 1993. Iraq still employs capable nuclear scientists and technicians and retains physical infrastructure needed to build a nuclear weapon. Iraq has made several attempts to buy high-strength aluminum tubes used to enrich uranium for a nuclear weapon.

In July, after being presented with proof that they have been lying, Iraq admits that Al-Hakam is, in fact, a bio-weapons facility that had been used to produce Botulinum and Anthrax. They present what they claim is a complete disclosure of their program. In it they claim all stockpiles were destroyed after the war with Iran.

A month later, Lieutenant General Hussein Kamael, a son-in-law of Saddam, and the man who had run Iraq’s bio-weapons program defects to Jordan. Assuming he is about to spill his guts to the U.N. (incorrectly it turns out), Iraqi officials claim they have “discovered” a new cache of documents on a chicken-farm owned by Kamel. It detailed the weaponization of thousands of liters of Anthrax, Botulinum toxin, and Aflatoxin for use with Scud warheads, aerial bombs and aircraft.

Iraq also admits in that a MIG-21 remote-piloted vehicle tested in 1991 was intended to carry a biological weapon spray system. Iraq previously denied any connection between UAV programs and chemical or biological agent dispersal.

“We know they [the inspectors] are playing an intelligence role. The way they are conducting their inspections and the sites they are visiting have nothing to do with weapons of mass destruction. But we are cooperating with inspection teams in a positive way in order to expose the lies of those who have bad intentions.” - Iraqi Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan.

1995. Saddam's sons-in-law Hussein and Saddam Kamil had defect. They return to Iraq from Jordan after the Iraqi government announces amnesties for them. They were executed in February 1996. Some 40 of Saddam's relatives, including women and children, have been killed.

A cousin of Saddam, Ala Abd al-Qadir al-Majid, fled to Jordan from Iraq citing disagreements with the regime over business matters. He returned to Iraq after the Iraqi Ambassador in Jordan declared publicly that his life was not in danger. He was met at the border by Tahir Habbush, Head of the Directorate of General Intelligence (the Mukhabarat), and taken to a farm owned by Ali Hasan al-Majid. At the farm Ala was tied to a tree and executed by members of his immediate family who, following orders from Saddam, took it in turns to shoot him.

Saddam uses prisoners as test subjects for chemical and biological warfare experiments. 1,600 death-row inmates are transferred to a special unit for this purpose. An eye witness sees prisoners tied down to beds, experiments conducted on them, blood oozing around the victim's mouths and autopsies performed to confirm the effects.

1995. At a scientific conference in Winchester, England, Russian biologists Andrei Pomerantsev and Nikolai Staritsin reveal that they have genetically engineered a more virulent strain of Anthrax by inserting into it virulence genes from Bacillus cereus, a bacteria that attacks blood cells but is not normally deadly. The new pathogen is nearly 100% deadly, even against test subjects (hamsters) vaccinated with Russia’s current Anthrax vaccine. They claim the experiments are not part of a military weapons program.

1995, March 20. The Aum Shinrikyo cult, founded in 1987, and which counts several biochemists among its 50,000 members (some in the U.S.), releases Sarin nerve gas in a Japanese subway--12 people die and over 5,000 are injured. The cult was found to possess rudimentary biological weapons including Anthrax, Botulinum, and Q-fever. Prior to this attack, in 1994, they reportedly release nerve agent in a residential area of Matsumoto, Japan, killing 7 and injuring 500. The cult also staged unsuccessful attacks on American naval bases at Yokohama and Yokosuka and the Japanese Imperial Palace using Anthrax. These attacks had gone unnoticed but were revealed in courtroom testimony.

They were found to posses B anthracis and botulinum toxin and had sent members to Zaire during 1992 to obtain the Ebola virus for weapons development. The cult had also developed a helicopter to spray toxins, and a drone for unmanned chemical and biological attacks.

1995, April. UNSCOM reports to the UN Security Council that Iraq had concealed its biological weapons program and had failed to account for 3 tons of growth material for biological agents.

1995, April 19. Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred Murrah building kills 95 people. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols are convicted of the crime. The Clinton administration asserts they were the masterminds of the incident and denies involvement of foreign terrorists.

Jayna Davis, a former Oklahoma television reporter, is one of the first reporters on the spot of the bombing. She conducts a major investigation, which turns up credible evidence (presented to and discounted by the FBI), that Timothy McVeigh, a Gulf War veteran, had ties to, and received help from, Iraqi agents operating in the U.S. who entered as “refugees” after the Gulf War.

1996. Congress tightens control over labs and companies selling pathogens to scientists and medical researchers.

1996, June 25. Islamic militants in Saudi Arabia detonate a truck bomb near the Khobar Towers, an apartment building housing hundreds of American servicemen. 19 Americans are killed and as many as 500 wounded. Saudi officials are accused of hampering the investigation and hunt for the perpetrators.

1996. In August, Saddam Hussein sends forces into northern Iraq and captures city of Irbil, a key city inside the Kurdish haven established above the 36th parallel in 1991. The following month, U.S. ships and airplanes attack military targets in Iraq to punish the Iraqi military and President Clinton extends the no-fly zones closer to Baghdad.

1997. Andrew Weber, a U.S. diplomat involved in arranging inspections and scientific exchanges between Russia and the U.S., talks to two scientists from the Oblensk State Research Center of Applied Microbiology while visiting Moscow. He is told that a delegation of Iranians had recently visited the Oblensk and Vector facility as well as others.

The Iranians were on a recruiting mission, offering $5,000 per month salaries to Russian microbiologist willing to come to work in Iran. Similar delegations from Iraq, Libya and North Korea have visited Russia. Several Russian scientists are known to have accepted these offers. The exact number is not known, but the whereabouts of many former Biopreparat employees is unknown.

1997. Soil samples from Vozrozhdeniye Island, where the Soviets had disposed of tons of weaponized Anthrax a decade earlier, and where they had tested many chemical and biological weapons, shows that some of the bleach-soaked spores are still alive and potentially dangerous.

1997. UNSCOM discovers evidence that Iraq is producing Ricin in quantity.

1997, April 25. An envelope marked "antrachs" is discovered in the mailroom of the world headquarters of B'nai B'rith in Washington DC. The fire department seals off the building for what turns out to be a hoax.

1997, May. The Russian ministry of Science and Technology sponsors a biotechnology trade fair in Teheran.

1997, June. UNSCOM reports that one of their Iraqi escorts attempted to wrest the controls of a U.N. helicopter from its Chilean pilots to keep it from flying over a suspected arms site and even threatened to shut off the fuel pump to the engine, stating he would, “do whatever he could to stop the aircraft from flying."

In another case an Iraqi helicopter blocked the progress of a U.N. helicopter by flying dangerously close to it.

1997, October. A protracted confrontation with Saddam Hussein begins after Iraq accuses U.S. members of the U.N. inspection teams of being spies and expels the majority of U.S. participants. The U.N. Security Council threatens renewed economic sanctions. The confrontation continues into November as Iraq expels the remaining six U.S. inspectors and the United Nations withdraws other inspectors in protest. Inspectors are readmitted after the United States and Great Britain again begin a military build-up in the Gulf. However, in November, Iraq announces it will not allow inspectors access to sites designated as "palaces and official residences." U.N. officials protest, having long suspected that such sites were being used to conceal possible weapons of mass destruction.

1998, March. The Defense Department begins an vaccination program to immunize all military personnel against Anthrax.

1998, October 31. Iraq cuts off all work by U.N. monitors. The United States and Great Britain warn of possible military strikes to force compliance. A renewed military build-up in the Persian Gulf begins.

1998, November 5. The U.N. Security Council condemns Iraq for violating agreements signed after the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

1998, November 11. U.N. weapons inspectors are kicked out of Iraq by Saddam. Based on the UNSCOM report to the UN Security Council in January 1999 and earlier UNSCOM reports, when the UN inspectors left Iraq they were unable to account for: up to 360 tonnes of bulk chemical warfare agent, including 1.5 tons of VX nerve agent; up to 3,000 tons of precursor chemicals, including approximately 300 tons of which, in the Iraqi chemical warfare program, were unique to the production of VX; growth media procured for biological agent production (enough to produce over three times the 8,500 liters of anthrax spores Iraq admits to having manufactured); over 30,000 special munitions for delivery of chemical and biological agents.

During their tenure, UNSCOM turns up several “cookbooks” for chemical and biological weapons.

1998, November 14. With B-52 bombers in the air and within about 20 minutes of attack, Saddam Hussein agrees to allow U.N. monitors back in. The bombers are recalled before an attack occurs. Weapons inspectors return to Iraq a few days later.

1998, December 8. Chief U.N. weapons inspector Richard Butler reports that Iraq is still impeding inspections. U.N. teams begin departing Iraq.

1998, December 15. A formal U.N. report accuses Iraq of a repeated pattern of obstructing weapons inspections by not allowing access to records and inspections sites, and by moving equipment records and equipment from one to site another.

1998, December 16. The United States and Great Britain begin a massive air campaign (Operation Desert Fox) against key military targets in Iraq. Targets include the Castor Oil Production Plant at Fallujah, which was damaged, but has been rebuilt. The residue from the castor bean pulp can be used in the production of the biological agent Ricin.

1999, January. The UN Special Commission reports that Iraq failed to provide credible evidence that 550 mustard gas-filled artillery shells and 400 biological weapons-capable aerial bombs had been lost or destroyed.

UNSCOM concludes that Iraq has not accounted for 1.5 tons of VX, a powerful nerve agent. Former UNSCOM head Richard Butler wrote that “a missile warhead of the type Iraq has made and used can hold some 140 liters of VX... A single such warhead would contain enough of the chemical to kill up to 1 million people.”

1999, March. The Pentagon’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Launches project “Bacchus.” Its purpose is to determine if it can set up a working germ-factory by purchasing readily available, off-the-shelf technology in the U.S. and overseas. By buying both new and used equipment they set up a working facility at the Nevada Test Site and produce about 2 lbs. of “simulated” anthrax. None of the purchases are detected by any reporting agency. Later, the site is used to train anti-terrorism teams how to “assault” a bio-weapons lab without causing an outbreak or infecting themselves--a feat that turns out to be much more difficult than first thought.

1999, April. A man claiming to be Saddam’s former personal driver publishes a book in Britain. He quotes Saddam as saying he might one day use the West Nile virus against his enemies.

1999, August. An outbreak of West Nile Virus strikes New York. 62 people become ill and seven die. Most doctors are stumped by the flu-like symptoms, but an astute lab-technician notifies the CDC, which confirms West Nile. The Mayor orders spraying the city for mosquitoes, which prevents a wider outbreak. This is the first known outbreak in North America. Experts still don’t know how the virus found its way to New York from the Middle-East.

2000. Iraqi authorities reportedly introduced tongue amputation as a punishment for persons who criticize Saddam Hussein or his family, and on July 17, government authorities reportedly amputate the tongue of a person who allegedly criticized Saddam Hussein. Authorities perform the amputation in front of a large crowd. Similar tongue amputations also reportedly occurred.

Iraq attempts to procure dual-use chemicals for the “reconstruction” of civil chemical production at sites formerly associated with the chemical warfare program. Iraq also tries to procure dual-use materials and equipment, which could be used for a biological warfare program.

145 male prisoners were executed at Abu Ghraib prison. Dozens of women accused of prostitution were beheaded without any judicial process. Some were accused for political reasons. Prisoners at the Qurtiyya Prison in Baghdad and elsewhere are kept in metal boxes the size of tea chests. If they do not confess they are left to die.

Other methods of torture used in Iraqi jails include using electric drills to mutilate hands, pulling out fingernails, knife cuts, dripping with acid, sexual attacks and 'official rape'.

2000, Spring. George Tenet, director of the CIA reports to a panel of experts that Osama bin-Laden has been training his operatives in the use of chemical and biological toxins.

2000, June. A former Iraqi general reportedly received a videotape of security forces raping a female family member. He subsequently received a telephone call from an intelligence agent who stated that another female relative was being held and warned him to stop speaking out against the Iraqi Government.

2000, May. Federal officials stage the largest emergency-preparedness exercise ever. The scenario is the hypothetical release, by a lone-terrorist, of a Pneumonic Plague virus in Denver. The exercise lasts five days and is ended when the results show that spread of the virus has overwhelmed the ability of emergency worker to respond and it has spread out of control into neighboring states. The death-toll estimates for the period of the exercise range between 1,000 and 2,000. The simulated outbreak not only overwhelms Colorado health services, but the CDC’s ability to respond as well.

2000, October. The U.S.S. Cole, a modern warship is crippled and nearly sunk by suicide bombers piloting a dinghy packed with explosives. 17 Sailors are killed and scores injured.

2001. An Iraqi defector, Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri, says he has visited twenty secret facilities for chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. Mr. Saeed, a civil engineer, supports his claims with stacks of Iraqi government contracts, complete with technical specifications. Mr. Saeed said Iraq uses front companies to purchase dual-use equipment with the blessing of the United Nations – and then secretly used the equipment for their weapons programs.

2001. Iraq announces that it will begin renovating the al-Dawrah Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Facility, one of two known bio-containment, level-three, facilities in Iraq that have an extensive air handling and filtering system. Iraq has admitted that this was a biological weapons facility. Iraq starts the plant without UN approval, ostensibly to produce vaccines that it could more easily and more quickly import through the UN.

2001, January. The Department of Defense reports that Iraq has continued to work on its weapons programs, including converting L-29 jet trainer aircraft for the delivery of chemical or biological weapons.

2001, February. Australian scientists announce that they have inadvertently killed dozens of lab mice by making a virus that had cripples their immune system. They had been trying to make mice infertile by inserting into Mousepox the mouse gene that controls production of interleukin-4. Mice injected with the virus become infertile--then die. Researchers find that even mice inoculated against Mousepox die of the new virus. Humans also have the interleukin-4 immune system gene.

2001, March. American and Italian scientists report in the journal of Nature Immunology that they accidentally triggered a mechanism that caused mice to self-destruct in a severe allergic reaction in which the immune system tries to destroy its own tissues. These results are similar to the experiments conducted by Soviet germ warfare researchers and Australian scientists.

2001. August. Amnesty International reports that Saddam Hussein has the world's worst record for numbers of persons who have “disappeared” and remain unaccounted for.

2001, September. The Iraqi Government expels six UN humanitarian relief workers without providing any explanation.

2001, September 11. Al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four passenger jetliners. Two are piloted into the World Trade Towers in New York, bringing them down. A third is crashed into the Pentagon and fourth crashes in a Pennsylvania field when passengers attempt to retake the plane from the highjackers. Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin-Laden has its base in Afghanistan. Bin-Laden takes credit for the attack. Bin-Laden, like most of the highjackers, is a Saudi national. Approximately 3,000 people are killed and many injured.

2001, October. Anthrax is disseminated through the U.S. mail system. Letters containing powdered anthrax are sent to several politicians. Several postal workers contract the disease. Post offices around the country must be shut down for decontamination, as is the Capitol Building. The clean-up costs millions and panics the nation. The origin of the Anthrax is not confirmed. Genetic markers suggest it may have come from seed germs on file at the American Type Culture.

2001, November 6. Frontline interviews an Iraqi defector Lt. General Sabah Khodada. The general reports that in 1995 and 2000 he witnessed “terrorists” training in a Boeing 707 next to Iraq’s Salman Pak chemical warfare research facility south of Baghdad. The general feels that these exercises may have been training for 9/11. He says they were definitely Islamic extremists, though he cannot say for sure which group they were with. His story is corroborated by former Iraqi Army Captain.

U.S. Intelligence sources confirm terrorist training at Salman Pak, but do not think the training is connected to 9/11. U.N. Inspectors have confirmed the existence of the Boeing 707 outside the facility.

2001, December. Adnan Saeed al-Haideri, a specialist in Iraq’s nuclear program defects. al-Haideri identifies 300 separate clandestine sites used by Iraq to hide biological and chemical weapons, and nuclear materials. Some of the equipment is hidden in lead containers stored in fake wells lined with concrete. Al-Haideri an advanced epoxies specialist said he was called in to seal cracks in the concrete because the Iraqis feared U.S. surveillance satellites would pick up the slightest radioactive emissions.

Iraq now is believed to be operating a miniature uranium-enrichment "cascade" at a clandestine location, hermetically sealed to prevent telltale emissions.

2002. A former Iraqi intelligence officer responsible for setting up front companies for illegal overseas purchases claims that Iraq has arranged to purchase nuclear weapons material (including uranium) from Armscor, South Africa’s state armaments directorate. During the Iran-Iraq war Armscor supplied Iraq with advanced 155mm howitzers. These sales are handled through a front company in Jordan.

For five years he personally ran a procurement network based in Dubai for the Special Security Organization, the elite of Saddam's vast intelligence apparatus, in charge of overseas procurement and responsible for hiding key equipment and material for Saddam's weapons programs. He was arrested by the regime in 1998, viciously tortured, given an injection of thallium and dumped on the street. Bleeding from his nose, mouth and stomach, he managed to escape to Northern Iraq and ultimately to Turkey, where human-rights workers treat him successfully for thallium poisoning. Thallium poisoning a favorite method of the regime for executing its enemies, because it causes a slow, painful death.

2002, April. Saddam Hussein increases from $10,000 to $25,000 the money offered to families of Palestinian homicide bombers. The rules for rewarding homicide bombers are strict and insist that only someone who blows himself up with a belt of explosives gets the full payment. Payments are made on a strict scale, with different amounts for wounds, disablement, death as a “martyr” and $25,000 for a suicide bomber. Mahmoud Besharat, a representative on the West Bank who is handing out to families the money from Saddam, said, “You would have to ask President Saddam why he is being so generous. But he is a revolutionary and he wants this distinguished struggle, the intifada, to continue." Baghdad also trains Palestine Liberation Front members in small arms and explosives.

2002, September. Iraq is again caught trying to import high-quality aluminum tubes. These tubes are required for making uranium enrichment centrifuges. Dr. Hamza (former head of Iraq’s nuclear program), reports that Iraq already has 1.3 tons of low-enriched uranium it purchased from Brazil. Centrifuges will allow it to be enriched into fissile material. Iraq also possesses up to 10 tons of yellow-cake uranium, which has been extracted from large supplies of phosphates dotted around the country. Nuclear inspectors had been shown 162 tons of the material, but Dr Hamza said there were several other phosphate sites that were not inspected.

2002, September 5. An editorial in the Iraqi newspaper “Al-Iqtisadi”, which is owned by Saddam Hussein's eldest son Uday, called for the formation of suicide [fidaiyoon] squads to launch broad-based sabotage operations against the United States, its friends, and interests.

2002, September 9. A new report released from the International Institute for Strategic Studies, an independent research organization, concludes that Saddam Hussein could build a nuclear bomb within months if he were able to obtain enough fissile material.

2002, November 29. Pakistani Imam Syed Abdullah Bukhari addresses Delhi's Muslims, saying “Islamic countries have to acquire nuclear weapons.” Bukhari is known to have, in the past, made pro-Taliban and pro-Osama Bin Laden statements.

2003, January 1. Six Iraqi women who say they or their families were brutalized by the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein called for the Iraqi leader to be indicted for war crimes and say regime change is the only way to save their desperate nation.

"The Iraqi people have been living in a state of war for 30 years," said Nazand Beghakani, a founder of the International Kurdish Women Study Network. "I'm calling on the international community to stop this war that has been forced on the Iraqi people."

The women report numerous horrors, including; the systematic beheading of innocent women belonging to families suspected of opposing Saddam's regime, and rape and the use of torture against opponents and their families as tools of intimidation.

2003, January 16. Previously undisclosed warheads for chemical weapons are discovered by UN inspectors. A joint UNMOVIC/IAEA team also find a significant cache of documents related to Iraq’s uranium enrichment program in the home of Iraqi scientist Faleh Hassan.

2003, January 29. The United Nations announces that Iraq will chair the May 12-June 27 United Nations conference on disarmament. This will be the 25th anniversary session of the conference.

2003, February. Two German nationals are charged with attempting to smuggle over 2,000 missile parts into Iraq.

2003, February 5. Secretary of State Colin Powell address the U.N. He presents to that body proof, in the form of voice intercepts, spy-satellite, U-2 imagery, and eye-witness accounts, of Saddam's violations of U.N. resolutions and his continuing efforts to thwart them. He also provides proof that Saddam is training terrorists, including al-Queada.

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At least ten nations reportedly have the ability to create bio-weapons. James Woolsey, former CIA Director, notes that growing biological agents takes little more expertise than brewing beer and is within the reach of countries or terrorists that have the money and access to scientific expertise.

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Mustard Gas: Mustard is a liquid agent, which gives off a hazardous vapor, causing burns and blisters to exposed skin. When inhaled, mustard damages the respiratory tract; when ingested, it causes vomiting and diarrhea. It attacks and damages the eyes, mucous membranes, lungs, skin, and blood-forming organs.

Tabun, sarin and VX are all nerve agents of which VX is the most toxic. They all damage the nervous system, producing muscular spasms and paralysis. As little as 10 milligrams of VX on the skin can cause rapid death.

Anthrax: Anthrax is a bacteria. It has a spore form that makes it extremely resistant to the environment. It is highly infectious and lethal when inhaled. The symptoms may vary, but can include fever and internal bleeding. The incubation period for anthrax is 1 to 7 days, with most cases occurring within 2 days of exposure. It is a one-time agent--it does not spread from person to person. An anthrax vaccine does exist, but is not readily available.

Smallpox: Smallpox is a virus. It is highly contagious, transmits through the atmosphere very easily and has a high mortality rate; 10-100 viruses per infective dose. A worldwide vaccination program eliminated smallpox in the 1970s. Both the United States and the former Soviet Union officially maintained small quantities of the virus at two labs. However, there is the suspicion that it may have been or is still researched and developed at other labs either within Russia or in other countries, thus increasing the concern of smallpox being used as a biological weapon. Mortality in 3% of vaccinated and 30% of unvaccinated.

Plague: 100-500 bacteria infective dose, 2-3 day incubation, pneumonic plague highly contagious; antibiotics within 24 hr or 100% fatal (pneumonic form); plague pneumonia, respiratory failure, etc.

Ebola: Ebola is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a virus. It is extremely lethal and its symptoms are profuse bleeding from the orifices. There is no cure or treatment.

Marburg: Marburg is another hemorrhagic fever caused by a virus. It is extremely lethal and its symptoms are profuse bleeding from the orifices. There is no cure or treatment.

Botulism: One of the deadliest toxins caused known to man, is a by-product of a bacteria; 0.1 microgram lethal to adult, 1-5 days onset (10 times more toxic than Sarin). The first symptoms of poisoning may appear as early as 1 hour post exposure or as late as 8 days after exposure, with the incubation period between 12 and 22 hours. Blocks neurotransmission; paralysis leads to death by suffocation.

Brucellosis: 10-100 bacteria per infective dose, 5-60 day incubation, not contagious unless draining lesions appear; antibiotics but no vaccine; "only" 5% fatalities if untreated (central nervous system infections); recovery may take 1 yr.

Tularemia: Tularemia is a bacteria. It causes non-lethal diseases that are extremely incapacitating such as weight loss, fever, headaches and often pneumonia.

Aflatoxins: Fungal toxins, which are potent carcinogens. Most symptoms take a long time to show. Food products contaminated by aflatoxins can cause liver inflammation and cancer.

They can also affect pregnant women, leading to stillborn babies and children born with mutations.

Ricin: Derived from the castor bean and can cause multiple organ failure leading to death within one or two days of inhalation or ingestion.

A typical nuclear fission weapon consists of: fissile material for the core, which gives out huge amounts of explosive energy from nuclear reactions when made "super critical" through extreme compression. Fissile material is usually either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or weapons-grade plutonium. HEU can be made in gas centrifuges. Plutonium is made by reprocessing fuel from a nuclear reactor.

A detonation of a 20-kiloton nuclear warhead over a city might flatten an area of approximately 3 square miles. Within 1.6 miles of detonation, blast damage and radiation would cause 80% casualties, three-quarters of which would be fatal. Between 1.6 and 3.1 miles from the detonation, there would still be 10% casualties.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

“Inspectors going in now will have an almost impossible task to discover what’s going on in the nuclear field.... Since the inspectors left, Saddam has had four years at least to hide what needs to be hidden. Now he’s well on the road, his game will be to stall and stall — if America lets him.” - Dr Hamza, Former head of Iraq’s Nuclear development program.

“The contrast to nuclear weapons illustrates why many call germ weapons the ‘poor man’s atom bomb.’ A nation that obtains plans for a crud nuclear device is at the beginning of a complex technical challenges that requires staggering and easily detectible investments in mines, factories, and nuclear reactors. But scientists like Bill Patrick or Ken Alibek say they could teach a terror group how to make devastating germ weapons from a few handfuls of backyard dirt and some widely available lab equipment.” - Judith Miller, Germs, 2001.

“Iraq appears not to have come to a genuine acceptance, not even today, of the disarmament which was demanded of it.“ - Dr. Hans Blix.

“Time is on my side.” - Saddam Hussein.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOURCES:

Germs, by Judith Miller, 2001. (this one I consider a must read).

Breaking With Moscow, Arkady Schevchenko, 1985.

The Collapse of Communism, ed. by Bernard Gwerlzman & Michael T. Kaufman, 1990.

Counter-Terrorist, Sam Hall, 1987.

Inside Spetznaz: Soviet Special Operations, Maj. William H. Burgess III, 1990.

KGB: The Inside Story Of Its Foreign Operations From Lenin To Gorbachev, Christopher Andrew & Oleg Gordievsky, 1990.

Medieval Warfare, H.W. Koch, 1985.

The Middle East Conflicts: From 1945 to the Present, John Pimlott, 1983.

The Mongols, David Morgan, 1986.

The Rape of Kuwait, Jean P. Sassan, 1991.

Saddam Hussein and The Crisis In The Gulf, Judith Miller & Laurie Myloroie, 1990.

Saddam’s Bomb Maker, Dr. Khidhir Hamza, 2002.

Soviet Strategic Deception, Brian D. Daily & Patrick J. Parker, 1987.

Target America, by Yoseff Bodansky, 1993.

http://www.dtic.mil/
http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/
http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/plague/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/gunning/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saddam/
http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/
http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v278n5/ffull/jsc7044.html/
http://chemdef.apgea.army.mil/textbook/contents.asp/
http://www.vnh.org/FM8284/
http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/bioterrorism.html/
http://www.telemedicine.org/BioWar/biologic.htm/
http://www.cbiac.apgea.army.mil/
http://www.terrorism.com/
http://www.hri.org/docs/USSD-Terror/
http://www.ict.org.il/
http://www.official-documents.co.uk/
http://www.iiss.org/
http://www.defenselink.mil/
http://www.janes.com/
http://www.whitehouse.gov/
http://idl.stanford.edu/

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